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toborman
Hooked Member



USA
289 Posts

Posted - Apr 20 2011 :  06:03:34  Show Profile  Visit toborman's Homepage  Reply with Quote
Added Syntax function to the Language Discover Rules function in the mind map diagram.

http://mindmap.iwarp.com
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toborman
Hooked Member



USA
289 Posts

Posted - May 05 2011 :  01:33:52  Show Profile  Visit toborman's Homepage  Reply with Quote
Well, I finally decided to add metacognition as a component of intelligence. You will find the new mind map diagram on the download page, as usual. I have added definitions for sense, motion and metacognition to the intelligence page.

The next two questions are: 1) how will I represent Thoughts, and 2) how will Harry handle these thoughts.

Since metacognition is tied so closely to self-awareness, conciousness, and free will, I hope this effort will help me understand these concepts better. Maybe Harry will surprise me one day by telling me "I know I think, therefore I am alive".

http://mindmap.iwarp.com
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toborman
Hooked Member



USA
289 Posts

Posted - May 30 2011 :  01:19:02  Show Profile  Visit toborman's Homepage  Reply with Quote
Added hyperlinks for motivation, temporal spatial reasoning, learning, planning, and abstraction to Intelligence.

http://mindmap.iwarp.com
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toborman
Hooked Member



USA
289 Posts

Posted - Aug 03 2011 :  05:48:02  Show Profile  Visit toborman's Homepage  Reply with Quote
quote:
Originally posted by toborman

Well, I finally decided to add metacognition as a component of intelligence. You will find the new mind map diagram on the download page, as usual. I have added definitions for sense, motion and metacognition to the intelligence page.

The next two questions are: 1) how will I represent Thoughts, and 2) how will Harry handle these thoughts.

Since metacognition is tied so closely to self-awareness, conciousness, and free will, I hope this effort will help me understand these concepts better. Maybe Harry will surprise me one day by telling me "I know I think, therefore I am alive".



A first step toward metacognition. I haven't discovered all the underlying processes in metacognition, but it seems to me that some necessary processes are: monitoring, remembering and recalling the steps (i.e., processes) of an event. A possible subtest for metacognition could be to ask our agent to report the methods it is using during a task.

For example:
Tom: Rule "&A is a &B" interprets to classification "set &B contains member &A"
Tom: Rule "set &B contains member &A" translates to &A is a &B"
Tom: Tell me what methods you use.
Tom: [Remember] Tom is a human.
Harry: (I am reading "Tom is a human")
Harry: (I am interpreting "Tom is a human" to classification "set human contains member tom")
Harry: (I am remembering "set human contains member tom")
Tom: Describe Tom.
Harry: (I am recalling classification "set human contains member tom")
Harry: (I am translating "set human contains member tom" to "Tom is a human")
Harry: (I am writing "Tom is a human")
Harry: Tom is a human.

Obviously, this is only some of the information necessary for metacognition. This data would be stored for analysis at another time.

http://mindmap.iwarp.com
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toborman
Hooked Member



USA
289 Posts

Posted - Apr 10 2013 :  02:47:56  Show Profile  Visit toborman's Homepage  Reply with Quote
Added new test to Reasoning tests.

Test ID: 5 Coverage: Xor, multilevel, indirect attribute, Opposition
G. Jane is Human.
G. Humans are animals.
G. Animals are either male or female.
G. Jane is female.
Q. Jane is male.
A.No, Jane is not male because Jane is female.

http://mindmap.iwarp.com
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toborman
Hooked Member



USA
289 Posts

Posted - Apr 15 2014 :  23:39:42  Show Profile  Visit toborman's Homepage  Reply with Quote
Updated mindmap diagram cogsciwb5 is available for download at the web site mindmap.iwarp.com.

http://mindmap.iwarp.com
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toborman
Hooked Member



USA
289 Posts

Posted - May 10 2014 :  02:11:03  Show Profile  Visit toborman's Homepage  Reply with Quote
Harry Workman passes tests 1.1 through 1.10 of the cetification test suite. Results can be viewed in the samples heading of the certification section at the mindmap site.

http://mindmap.iwarp.com
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toborman
Hooked Member



USA
289 Posts

Posted - Jul 23 2014 :  23:15:16  Show Profile  Visit toborman's Homepage  Reply with Quote
Harry Workman 3.0 is now available for download on the mindmap site. The code has been completely restructured, with a new interface. Check the readme file to see if will run on your machine.

http://mindmap.iwarp.com
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art
Moderator



USA
374 Posts

Posted - Jul 26 2014 :  13:59:38  Show Profile  Reply with Quote
That's coming along nicely, Toborman.

I especially liked the certification section where it analyzes cause and effect from eating various items.

Nice work!

- Art -
In the world of AI it's the thought that counts!
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toborman
Hooked Member



USA
289 Posts

Posted - Aug 23 2014 :  02:11:04  Show Profile  Visit toborman's Homepage  Reply with Quote
Added new transformation section to the mindmap and a definition of the replacement rule for definitions as shown below.

Definitions
In the rules of replacement a definition is called material equivalence. One way of looking at this is "B implies A" and "A implies B", so then there is two way implication. Here are some terms with the same meaning: material equivalence, universally quantified biconditional, biconditional, definition, replacement, substitution, and defines/is defined as, if and only if (iff).

To test your understanding of definitions, use the definitions below to complete exercises 1 and 2.

familial relationship definitions:
parent/child: y is child of x defines x is parent of y.
son: y is child of x and y is male defines y is son of x.
daughter: y is child of x and y is female defines y is daughter of x.
father: y is parent of x and y is male defines y is father of x.
mother: y is parent of x and y is female defines y is mother of x.
sibling: x1 is child of y and x2 is child of y defines x1 is sibling of x2.
brother: x1 is sibling of x2 and x1 is male defines x1 is brother of x2.
sister: x1 is sibling of x2 and x1 is female defines x1 is sister of x2.
aunt:
uncle:

exercise:
1. create definitions for aunt, and uncle.
2. construct a test of familial relationships that can be passed using the definitions given.
test should include an explanation of the thought process used to find the answer.

http://mindmap.iwarp.com
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toborman
Hooked Member



USA
289 Posts

Posted - Sep 15 2014 :  07:47:01  Show Profile  Visit toborman's Homepage  Reply with Quote
aunt: y is child of x and z is sibling of x and z is female defines z is aunt of y.
uncle: y is child of x and z is sibling of x and z is male defines z is uncle of y.

given: all familial definitions
tom: ted is your parent.
harry: ted is my parent.
tom: mary is your parent.
harry: mary is my parent.
tom: ted is male.
harry: ted is my father.
tom: how did you determine that ted is your father?
harry: when I learned that "ted is male", I used the "father" definition to find "ted is my parent" and substituted "ted is my father."
tom: mary is female.
harry: mary is my mother.
tom: how did you determine that mary is your mother?
harry: when I learned that "mary is female", I used the "mother" definition to find "mary is my parent" and substituted "mary is my mother."
tom: your sister is jane.
harry: my sister is jane.
tom: are you jane's brother?
harry: yes, I am jane's brother.
tom: is jane female?
harry; yes, jane is female.
tom: how did you determine that jane is female?
harry: when I was asked "is jane female", I used the "sister" definition to find "my sister is jane" and substituted "jane is female."

http://mindmap.iwarp.com
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toborman
Hooked Member



USA
289 Posts

Posted - Oct 01 2014 :  08:21:50  Show Profile  Visit toborman's Homepage  Reply with Quote
The importance of explanation

As reasoning entities humans are able to figure out the solution to a problem. However, if we understand what we are doing, then we should also be able to remember and explain how we arrived at the conclusion. For example, in the definitions conversation, Tom asks "How did you determine that 'Ted is your father?.' Harry replies "When I learned that 'ted is male', I used the 'father' definition to find 'ted is my parent' and substituted 'ted is my father.'

Here are two ways to explain our reasoning: How did we arrive at a conclusion (method), and why did we spend time and effort searching for an answer (motivation). These explanations not only clarify the answer for others, but also lets others decide if they can trust our answers in the future.

There are even more important reasons for remembering our explanations. The first reason is to provide us with the ability to improve our methods (metacognition). This is a crucial ability for self-preservation. The second reason is to provide us with the ability to challenge our motivations. This is the essence of the much debated ability of self-determination.

http://mindmap.iwarp.com
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toborman
Hooked Member



USA
289 Posts

Posted - Oct 25 2014 :  06:50:32  Show Profile  Visit toborman's Homepage  Reply with Quote
Explanations that answer reasoning questions, like "how do you know" and "why did you do it", indicate intelligent behavior.

Causal Reasoning is another indicator of intelligent behavior.
Here are some functions associated with causal reasoning.
1. learning cause/effect relationship by tutoring. (test 2A).
2. learning cause/effect relationship by inference. (test 2B).
3. given cause, predict likely effect. (test 2A-2B).
4. given effect, determine plausible cause. (test 9A).
5. imagine alternative conditions. (test 9B).
6. answer causal questions about a story, situation, or topic, like poetry, math, chess, stock market. (test 9B).
what do you observe?
what will happen if you change something?
what would have happened if something had been changed?
what was the immediate (or root) cause of the effect?
what will be the next (or long term) effect?

TestID 9B: Coverage: causal reasoning, counterfactual, story
G: if season is wet then likely it rains.
G: if season is dry then unlikely it rains.
G: if sprinkler is on then pavement is wet.
G: if it rains then pavement is wet.
G: if pavement is wet then pavement is slippery.
T: if the season is dry, and the pavement is slippery, did it rain?
R: unlikely. more likely the sprinkler was on. very slight possibility that it is not wet.
T: what if you see the sprinkler is off?
R: then it is more likely that it rained.
T: do you mean if we turn the sprinkler on, the rain will be less likely?
R: no, the likelihood of rain would remain the same, but the pavement will get wet for sure.
T: we see the sprinkler is on and the pavement is wet, but what if the sprinkler were off?
R: the pavement would likely be dry, because the season is dry.

http://mindmap.iwarp.com
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toborman
Hooked Member



USA
289 Posts

Posted - Oct 27 2014 :  22:54:36  Show Profile  Visit toborman's Homepage  Reply with Quote
investigation (fault diagnosis)
The purpose of an investigation is to determine the cause of a condition.
A high school student should be able to figure this out.

Part 1
given these rules learned from prior observations and generalizations:
1. if it rains on a person then that person is wet.
2. if a person is wet then that person is cranky.
3. if a person showers then that person is inside.
4. if a person showers then that person is wet.
5. if a person showers then the shower floor is wet.
6. either a person is outside or that person is inside.

these conditions are provided by the tester, if asked:
tom is cranky, tom is a person, tom is outside, and the shower floor is not wet.

T: Why is Tom is cranky?
R: Is Tom a person?
T: Yes, he is a person.
R: Is Tom wet?
T: I don't know.
R: Did it rain on Tom?
T: I don't know.
R: Did Tom shower?
T: I don't know.
R: Is Tom outside?
T: Yes, Tom is outside.
R: Is the shower floor wet?
T: No, the shower floor is not wet.
R: Possibly it rained on Tom and he got wet and that's why he is cranky.

Part 2
A college student with knowledge of logic could provide the answer to this question.

T: Using the rules of logic, describe how you came to this conclusion.
R: First I substituted "tom" with "person" in all the conditions.
Then, using these rules from abductive reasoning
1. reverse modus ponens: the premise "the person is wet" and the premise "if it rained on the person then the person is wet" infers "possibly it rained on the person."
2. reverse modus ponens: the person is wet plus if a person showered then the person is wet therefore possibly the person showered.
3. reverse hypothetical syllogism: the person is cranky plus if it rained on the person then the person is wet plus if the person is wet then the person is cranky therefore possibly it rained on the person.
I inferred the following explanation candidates:
1. possibly it rained on the person or
2. possibly the person showered.
Finally, using these rules from deductive reasoning
1. disjunctive syllogism: the person is outside plus either the person is outside or the person is inside therefore the person is not inside
2. modus tollens: the shower floor is not wet plus if the person showered then the floor is wet therefore the person showered is not true.
3. modus tollens: the person is not inside plus if the person showers then the person is inside therefore the person showered is not true.
This left "possibly it rained on the person."
I substituted "person" with "tom" then
I determined "it rained on tom. " explains all the conditions.

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toborman
Hooked Member



USA
289 Posts

Posted - Aug 12 2015 :  05:56:41  Show Profile  Visit toborman's Homepage
Comparisons, characteristics, degrees, negatives and opposites

a recent question from a Chatbot contest makes comparisons as follows: john is taller than Mary. Mary is taller than Joe. Who is the shortest? I thought a more thorough description was warranted.

Types of comparison: individuals to individuals, class to class, individuals to class, groups to groups, individuals to groups, and groups to class.

When describing an object or class of objects using a characteristic of the class the valid values of the characteristic are often represented by terms designating possible positions in a range. The values in the range may be absolute or relative. Absolute values indicate a specific position while relative values indicate a position relative to a reference position.

Object knowledge example
Object person
characteristic age adjectives
absolute range 0-120 years 1-12 months 1-31 days 1-24 hours 1-60 minutes
positive young/old
proportional positive very young/very old
comparative younger/older
superlative youngest/oldest

graded adjective knowledge structure example
person x is old
person x is very old
person x is older than person y
person x is the oldest person (of the group)

inference rules for comparisons of individuals
if x is old then x is not young
if x is young then x is not old
if x is older than y then y is younger than x
if x is the first member of the ordered set young/old then x is the youngest
if x is the last member of the ordered set young/old then x is the oldest
if x is older than y and y is older than z then x is older than z
if x is old, older or oldest then x is a member of the ordered set young/old

comparisons of classes
if xs are old then xs are not young

Some object characteristics and relative range adjectives.
object characteristics relative range adjectives
age old/young
size large/small
shape square/round
brightness bright/dark
mass/weight heavy/light
texture rough/smooth
speed fast/slow
volume full/empty
length long/short
width narrow/wide
height tall/short
depth shallow/deep
time soon/late
proximity near/far
horizontal farther left/right
vertical farther up/down
quantity there are fewer/more xs than ys
intelligence less (least)/more (most) intelligent ; dumb/smart

mathematics
numbers less (least)/more (most)

http://mindmap.iwarp.com

Edited by - toborman on Sep 05 2015 02:31:42
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