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T O P I C    R E V I E W
toborman Posted - Dec 10 2007 : 01:04:04
Jim, John, Grant, mikmoth

The following link will take you to a new site with a diagram of human mental functions and behaviors that might be the basis for AI engine functions. Suggestions, challenges, and commentary using this thread is appreciated.

http://mindmap.iwarp.com/
15   L A T E S T    R E P L I E S    (Newest First)
toborman Posted - Jun 05 2019 : 19:31:17
thanks art. I've been moving the important stuff to my new blog. This used to be my number one site. I enjoyed the conversations until the moderator turn around time stopped the conversational mode.
art Posted - Jun 05 2019 : 06:46:56
Toborman,

You might wish to move your files to an alternate location. In case you missed Vittorio's announcement, the site will be closed forever in a few months (Sept. I believe).

I've seen you on the AI Dreams site which currently has a pretty nice base of members and participants so keep those thoughts perking and don't forget, if there's anything noteworthy, speak now or forever...well you know the drill.

Happy trails...
toborman Posted - May 07 2019 : 01:03:27
Added BLOG page link to the mind map website. http://mindmap.iwarp.com/index.html
toborman Posted - Aug 17 2015 : 03:57:37
Tests
Learning value ranges by direct input.

Test ID n: Coverage: Positive, opposite, range, question, remember
T: a person has height.
R: I understand.
T: [characteristic] height has [relative value] range short/tall.
R: I understand.
T: Mary is a person.
R: I understand. Is Mary short or tall?
T: Mary is tall.
R: I understand.

Learning value ranges by inference.

Test ID n: Coverage: Positive, opposite, range, question
G: height has range short/tall.
T: Mary is tall.
R: I understand.
T: Is Mary short?
R: No, Mary is not short. Mary is tall.

Using value ranges in positive, comparative, superlative statements.

Test ID n: Coverage: Positive, opposite, range, question, dilemma
G: height has range short/tall.
T: Max is short.
R: I understand.
T: Is Max tall or short?
R: Max is short.

Test ID n: Coverage: Positive, opposite, range, question, proportional
G: height has range short/tall.
T: Max is very short.
R: I understand.
T: Is Max is short?
R: Yes, Max is short.
T: How short is Max?
R: Max is very short.

Test ID n: Coverage: Comparative, opposite, range, question, negative
G: height has range short/tall.
T: Mary is taller than Max.
R: I understand.
T: Is Mary taller than Max.
R: Yes, Mary is taller than Max.
T: Is Max taller than Mary?
R: No, Max is shorter than Mary.

Test ID n: Coverage: Comparative, range, unknown, possessive
G: height has range short/tall.
T: Mary's mother is taller than Max.
R: I understand.
T: Describe Mary's mother.
R: Mary's mother is taller than Max.
T: Is Mary's mother taller than Joe?
R: I don't know.

Test ID n: Coverage: Superlative, range, opposite, chain, who, oset
G: height has range short/tall.
T: Mary is taller than Max.
R: I understand.
T: Max is taller than Joe.
R: I understand.
T: Is Mary taller than Joe.
R: Yes, Mary is taller than Joe.
T: Who is the shortest?
R: Joe is the shortest [of Mary, Max and Joe].
toborman Posted - Aug 17 2015 : 03:54:48
how to format positive, comparative, and superlative forms of graded adjectives in english

Using one-syllable positive form, add er for the comparative form and est for the superlative.

If the one-syllable positive form ends with an e, just add r for the comparative form and st for the superlative form. (change eer to er and eest to est)

If the one-syllable positive form ends with a single consonant with a vowel before it, double the consonant and add er for the comparative form; and double the consonant and add est for the superlative form.

With most two-syllable positive forms, you form the comparative with more and the superlative with most.

If the two-syllable positive form ends with y, change the y to i and add er for the comparative form. For the superlative form change the y to i and add est.

Two-syllable positive forms ending in er, -le, or ow take er and est to form the comparative and superlative forms.

For positive forms with three syllables or more, you form the comparative with more and the superlative with most.

Irregular positive forms.

Irregular positive form-Comparative Form-Superlative Form
good better best
bad worse worst
far farther farthest
little less least
many more most

Two-syllable positive forms that follow two rules. These adjectives can be used with -er and -est and with more and most.

Two-Syllable positive form-Comparative Form-Superlative Form
clever cleverer cleverest
clever more clever most clever

gentle gentler gentlest
gentle more gentle most gentle

friendly friendlier friendliest
friendly more friendly most friendly

quiet quieter quietest
quiet more quiet most quiet

simple simpler simplest
simple more simple most simple
toborman Posted - Aug 17 2015 : 03:46:17
how to recognize and interpret statements with positive, comparative, and superlative forms
"X is *er than Y." and "* has range */*." interprets to "Xs.%1.is greater than.Ys.%1."
"X has range A/B." interprets to "characteristic X has relative value range A/B."
"X has range n1 to n2 units." interprets to "characteristic X has absolute value range n1 to n2 units." (units like hours, miles, etc.)

how to relate positive, comparative, and superlative objects
Command relate object (X) to object (Y).
inferences:
if Xs %1 is greater than Ys %1 or Xs %1 is less than Ys %1 or Xs %1 is equal to Ys %1 then X is %1 and Y is %1.

For example:
inference rules for comparisons of individuals
if x is old then x is not young
if x is young then x is not old
if x is older than y then y is younger than x
if x is the first member of the ordered set young/old then x is the youngest
if x is the last member of the ordered set young/old then x is the oldest
if x is older then y and y is older than z then x is older than z
if x is old, older or oldest then x is a member of the ordered set young/old
comparisons of classes
if xs are old then xs are not young
toborman Posted - Aug 12 2015 : 05:56:41
Comparisons, characteristics, degrees, negatives and opposites

a recent question from a Chatbot contest makes comparisons as follows: john is taller than Mary. Mary is taller than Joe. Who is the shortest? I thought a more thorough description was warranted.

Types of comparison: individuals to individuals, class to class, individuals to class, groups to groups, individuals to groups, and groups to class.

When describing an object or class of objects using a characteristic of the class the valid values of the characteristic are often represented by terms designating possible positions in a range. The values in the range may be absolute or relative. Absolute values indicate a specific position while relative values indicate a position relative to a reference position.

Object knowledge example
Object person
characteristic age adjectives
absolute range 0-120 years 1-12 months 1-31 days 1-24 hours 1-60 minutes
positive young/old
proportional positive very young/very old
comparative younger/older
superlative youngest/oldest

graded adjective knowledge structure example
person x is old
person x is very old
person x is older than person y
person x is the oldest person (of the group)

inference rules for comparisons of individuals
if x is old then x is not young
if x is young then x is not old
if x is older than y then y is younger than x
if x is the first member of the ordered set young/old then x is the youngest
if x is the last member of the ordered set young/old then x is the oldest
if x is older than y and y is older than z then x is older than z
if x is old, older or oldest then x is a member of the ordered set young/old

comparisons of classes
if xs are old then xs are not young

Some object characteristics and relative range adjectives.
object characteristics relative range adjectives
age old/young
size large/small
shape square/round
brightness bright/dark
mass/weight heavy/light
texture rough/smooth
speed fast/slow
volume full/empty
length long/short
width narrow/wide
height tall/short
depth shallow/deep
time soon/late
proximity near/far
horizontal farther left/right
vertical farther up/down
quantity there are fewer/more xs than ys
intelligence less (least)/more (most) intelligent ; dumb/smart

mathematics
numbers less (least)/more (most)
toborman Posted - Oct 27 2014 : 22:54:36
investigation (fault diagnosis)
The purpose of an investigation is to determine the cause of a condition.
A high school student should be able to figure this out.

Part 1
given these rules learned from prior observations and generalizations:
1. if it rains on a person then that person is wet.
2. if a person is wet then that person is cranky.
3. if a person showers then that person is inside.
4. if a person showers then that person is wet.
5. if a person showers then the shower floor is wet.
6. either a person is outside or that person is inside.

these conditions are provided by the tester, if asked:
tom is cranky, tom is a person, tom is outside, and the shower floor is not wet.

T: Why is Tom is cranky?
R: Is Tom a person?
T: Yes, he is a person.
R: Is Tom wet?
T: I don't know.
R: Did it rain on Tom?
T: I don't know.
R: Did Tom shower?
T: I don't know.
R: Is Tom outside?
T: Yes, Tom is outside.
R: Is the shower floor wet?
T: No, the shower floor is not wet.
R: Possibly it rained on Tom and he got wet and that's why he is cranky.

Part 2
A college student with knowledge of logic could provide the answer to this question.

T: Using the rules of logic, describe how you came to this conclusion.
R: First I substituted "tom" with "person" in all the conditions.
Then, using these rules from abductive reasoning
1. reverse modus ponens: the premise "the person is wet" and the premise "if it rained on the person then the person is wet" infers "possibly it rained on the person."
2. reverse modus ponens: the person is wet plus if a person showered then the person is wet therefore possibly the person showered.
3. reverse hypothetical syllogism: the person is cranky plus if it rained on the person then the person is wet plus if the person is wet then the person is cranky therefore possibly it rained on the person.
I inferred the following explanation candidates:
1. possibly it rained on the person or
2. possibly the person showered.
Finally, using these rules from deductive reasoning
1. disjunctive syllogism: the person is outside plus either the person is outside or the person is inside therefore the person is not inside
2. modus tollens: the shower floor is not wet plus if the person showered then the floor is wet therefore the person showered is not true.
3. modus tollens: the person is not inside plus if the person showers then the person is inside therefore the person showered is not true.
This left "possibly it rained on the person."
I substituted "person" with "tom" then
I determined "it rained on tom. " explains all the conditions.
toborman Posted - Oct 25 2014 : 06:50:32
Explanations that answer reasoning questions, like "how do you know" and "why did you do it", indicate intelligent behavior.

Causal Reasoning is another indicator of intelligent behavior.
Here are some functions associated with causal reasoning.
1. learning cause/effect relationship by tutoring. (test 2A).
2. learning cause/effect relationship by inference. (test 2B).
3. given cause, predict likely effect. (test 2A-2B).
4. given effect, determine plausible cause. (test 9A).
5. imagine alternative conditions. (test 9B).
6. answer causal questions about a story, situation, or topic, like poetry, math, chess, stock market. (test 9B).
what do you observe?
what will happen if you change something?
what would have happened if something had been changed?
what was the immediate (or root) cause of the effect?
what will be the next (or long term) effect?

TestID 9B: Coverage: causal reasoning, counterfactual, story
G: if season is wet then likely it rains.
G: if season is dry then unlikely it rains.
G: if sprinkler is on then pavement is wet.
G: if it rains then pavement is wet.
G: if pavement is wet then pavement is slippery.
T: if the season is dry, and the pavement is slippery, did it rain?
R: unlikely. more likely the sprinkler was on. very slight possibility that it is not wet.
T: what if you see the sprinkler is off?
R: then it is more likely that it rained.
T: do you mean if we turn the sprinkler on, the rain will be less likely?
R: no, the likelihood of rain would remain the same, but the pavement will get wet for sure.
T: we see the sprinkler is on and the pavement is wet, but what if the sprinkler were off?
R: the pavement would likely be dry, because the season is dry.
toborman Posted - Oct 01 2014 : 08:21:50
The importance of explanation

As reasoning entities humans are able to figure out the solution to a problem. However, if we understand what we are doing, then we should also be able to remember and explain how we arrived at the conclusion. For example, in the definitions conversation, Tom asks "How did you determine that 'Ted is your father?.' Harry replies "When I learned that 'ted is male', I used the 'father' definition to find 'ted is my parent' and substituted 'ted is my father.'

Here are two ways to explain our reasoning: How did we arrive at a conclusion (method), and why did we spend time and effort searching for an answer (motivation). These explanations not only clarify the answer for others, but also lets others decide if they can trust our answers in the future.

There are even more important reasons for remembering our explanations. The first reason is to provide us with the ability to improve our methods (metacognition). This is a crucial ability for self-preservation. The second reason is to provide us with the ability to challenge our motivations. This is the essence of the much debated ability of self-determination.
toborman Posted - Sep 15 2014 : 07:47:01
aunt: y is child of x and z is sibling of x and z is female defines z is aunt of y.
uncle: y is child of x and z is sibling of x and z is male defines z is uncle of y.

given: all familial definitions
tom: ted is your parent.
harry: ted is my parent.
tom: mary is your parent.
harry: mary is my parent.
tom: ted is male.
harry: ted is my father.
tom: how did you determine that ted is your father?
harry: when I learned that "ted is male", I used the "father" definition to find "ted is my parent" and substituted "ted is my father."
tom: mary is female.
harry: mary is my mother.
tom: how did you determine that mary is your mother?
harry: when I learned that "mary is female", I used the "mother" definition to find "mary is my parent" and substituted "mary is my mother."
tom: your sister is jane.
harry: my sister is jane.
tom: are you jane's brother?
harry: yes, I am jane's brother.
tom: is jane female?
harry; yes, jane is female.
tom: how did you determine that jane is female?
harry: when I was asked "is jane female", I used the "sister" definition to find "my sister is jane" and substituted "jane is female."
toborman Posted - Aug 23 2014 : 02:11:04
Added new transformation section to the mindmap and a definition of the replacement rule for definitions as shown below.

Definitions
In the rules of replacement a definition is called material equivalence. One way of looking at this is "B implies A" and "A implies B", so then there is two way implication. Here are some terms with the same meaning: material equivalence, universally quantified biconditional, biconditional, definition, replacement, substitution, and defines/is defined as, if and only if (iff).

To test your understanding of definitions, use the definitions below to complete exercises 1 and 2.

familial relationship definitions:
parent/child: y is child of x defines x is parent of y.
son: y is child of x and y is male defines y is son of x.
daughter: y is child of x and y is female defines y is daughter of x.
father: y is parent of x and y is male defines y is father of x.
mother: y is parent of x and y is female defines y is mother of x.
sibling: x1 is child of y and x2 is child of y defines x1 is sibling of x2.
brother: x1 is sibling of x2 and x1 is male defines x1 is brother of x2.
sister: x1 is sibling of x2 and x1 is female defines x1 is sister of x2.
aunt:
uncle:

exercise:
1. create definitions for aunt, and uncle.
2. construct a test of familial relationships that can be passed using the definitions given.
test should include an explanation of the thought process used to find the answer.
art Posted - Jul 26 2014 : 13:59:38
That's coming along nicely, Toborman.

I especially liked the certification section where it analyzes cause and effect from eating various items.

Nice work!
toborman Posted - Jul 23 2014 : 23:15:16
Harry Workman 3.0 is now available for download on the mindmap site. The code has been completely restructured, with a new interface. Check the readme file to see if will run on your machine.
toborman Posted - May 10 2014 : 02:11:03
Harry Workman passes tests 1.1 through 1.10 of the cetification test suite. Results can be viewed in the samples heading of the certification section at the mindmap site.

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